(b) Strengthen and maintain the national security of the United States;
(c) Enhance the economic competitiveness, and scientific and technical capabilities of the United States;
(d) Encourage State, local and private sector investment in, and use of space technologies;
(e) Promote international cooperation to further U.S. domestic, national security, and foreign policies.
(b) Work with the private sector to develop flight demonstrators that will support a decision by the end of the decade on development of a next-generation reusable launch system.
(c) Continue a strong commitment to space science and Earth science programs. NASA will undertake:
(ii)a long-term program, using innovative new technologies, to obtain in-situ measurements and sample returns from the celestial bodies in the solar system.
(iii) a long-term program to identify and characterize planetary bodies in orbit around other stars;
(iv) a program of long-term observation, research, and analysis of the Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere and their interactions, including continual measurements from the Earth Observing System by 1998.
(b) Emphasize flight programs that reduce mission costs and development times by implementing innovative procurement practices, validating new technologies and promoting partnerships between government, industry, and academia.
(c) Acquire spacecraft from the private sector unless, as determined by the NASA Administrator, development requires the unique technical capabilities of a NASA center.
(d) Make use of relevant private sector remote sensing capabilities, data, and information products and establish a demonstration program to purchase data products from the U.S. private sector.
(e) Use competition and peer review to select scientific investigators.
(f) Seek to privatize or commercialize its space communications operations no later than 2005.
(g) Examine with DoD, NOAA and other appropriate federal agencies, the feasibility of consolidating ground facilities and data communications systems that cannot otherwise be provided by the private sector.
(b) consolidate operational U.S. Government civil requirements for data products, and define and operate Earth observation systems in support of operational monitoring needs;and
(c) in accordance with current policy and Public Law 102-555 provide for the regulation and licensing of the operation of private sector remote sensing systems.
(b) deterring, warning, and if necessary, defending against enemy attack;
(c) assuring that hostile forces cannot prevent our own use of space;
(d) countering, if necessary, space-systems and services used for hostile purposes;
(e) enhancing operations of U.S. and allied forces;
(f) ensuring our ability to conduct military and intelligence space-related activities;
(g) satisfying military and intelligence requirements during peace and crisis as well as through all levels of conflict;
(h) supporting the activities of national policy makers, the intelligence community, the National Command Authorities, combatant commanders and the military services, other federal officials, and continuity of government operations.
(b) In accordance with Executive Orders and applicable directives, DoD shall protect critical space-related technologies and mission aspects.
(c) DoD, as launch agent for both the defense and intelligence sectors, will maintain the capability to evolve and support those space transportation systems, infrastructure, and support activities necessary to meet national security requirements. DoD will be the lead agency for improvement and evolution of the current expendable launch vehicle fleet, including appropriate technology development.
(d) DoD will pursue integrated satellite control and continue to enhance the robustness of its satellite control capability. DoD will coordinate with other departments and agencies, as appropriate, to foster the integration and interoperability of satellite control for all governmental space activities.
(e) The Secretary of Defense will establish DoD's specific requirements for military and national-level intelligence information.
(f) The Secretary of Defense, in concert with the DCI, and for the purpose of supporting operational military forces, may propose modifications or augmentations to intelligence space systems as necessary. The DoD may develop and operate space systems to support military operations in the event that intelligence space systems cannot provide the necessary intelligence support to the DoD.
(g) Consistent with treaty obligations, the United States will develop, operate and maintain space control capabilities to ensure freedom of action in space and, if directed, deny such freedom of action to adversaries. These capabilities may also be enhanced by diplomatic, legal or military measures to preclude an adversary's hostile use of space systems and services. The U.S. will maintain and modernize space surveillance and associated battle management command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence to effectively detect, track, categorize, monitor, and characterize threats to U.S. and friendly space systems and contribute to the protection of U.S. military activities.
(h) The United States will pursue a ballistic missile defense program to provide for: enhanced theater missile defense capability later this decade; a national missile defense deployment readiness program as a hedge against the emergence of a long-range ballistic missile threat to the United States; and an advanced technology program to provide options for improvements to planned and deployed defenses.
(b) The DCI shall continue to develop and apply advanced technologies that respond to changes in the threat environment and support national intelligence priorities.
(c) The DCI shall work closely with the Secretary of Defense to improve the intelligence space sector's ability to support military operations worldwide.
(d) The nature, the attributable collected information and the operational details of intelligence space activities will be classified. The DCI shall establish and implement policies to provide appropriate protection for such data, including provisions for the declassification and release of such information when the DCI deems that protection is no longer required.
(e) Collected information that cannot be attributed to space systems will be classified according to its content.
(f) These guidelines do not apply to imagery product, the protection of which is governed by Executive Order 12951.
(g) Strict security procedures will be maintained to ensure that public discussion of satellite reconnaissance by Executive Branch personnel and contractors is consistent with DCI guidance. Executive Branch personnel and contractors should refrain from acknowledging or releasing information regarding satellite reconnaissance until a security review has been made.
(h) The following facts are UNCLASSIFIED:
(ii) That satellite photoreconnaissance includes a near real-time capability and is used to provide defense-related information for indications and warning, and the planning and conduct of military operations.
(iii) That satellite photoreconnaissance is used in the collection of mapping, charting, and geodetic data and such data is provided to authorized federal agencies.
(iv) That satellite photoreconnaissance is used to collect mapping, charting and geodetic data to develop global geodetic and cartographic materials to support defense and other mapping-related activities.
(v) That satellite photoreconnaissance can be used to collect scientific and environmental data and data on natural or man-made disasters, and such data can be disseminated to authorized federal agencies.
(vi) That photoreconnaissance assets can be used to image the United States and its territories and possessions.
(vii) That the U.S. conducts overhead signals intelligence collection.
(viii) That the U.S. conducts overhead measurement and signature intelligence collection.
(ix) The existence of the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) and the identification and official titles of its senior officials.
(i) Changes to the space intelligence security policy set forth in the national space policy can be authorized only by the President.
(b) Identify, and propose appropriate amendments to or the elimination of, applicable portions of United States laws and regulations that unnecessarily impede commercial space sector activities.
(c) Consistent with national security, provide for the timely transfer of government-developed space-technology to the private sector in such a manner as to protect its commercial value, including retention of technical data fights by the private sector.
(d) To the extent feasible, pursue innovative methods for procurement of space products and services.
(1) International Cooperation
The United States will pursue and conduct international cooperative space-related activities that achieve scientific, foreign policy, economic, or national security benefits for the nation. International agreements related to space activities shall be subject to normal interagency coordination procedures, consistent with applicable laws and regulations. United States cooperation in international civil space activities will:
(b) Enhance relations with U- S. allies and Russia while supporting initiatives with other states of the former Soviet Union and emerging spacefaring nations;
(c) Support U.S. technology transfer and nonproliferation objectives;
(d) Create new opportunities for U. S- commercial space activities; and
(e) Protect the commercial value of intellectual property developed with Federal support and ensure that technology transfers resulting from cooperation do not undermine U.S. competitiveness and national security.
(f) In support of these objectives:
(ii) NASA, in coordination with concerned U.S. Government agencies, will explore with foreign space agencies and international organizations the possible adoption of international standards for the interoperability of civil research spacecraft communication and control facilities.
(ii) Maintain a strong transportation capability and technology base to meet national needs for space transport of personnel and payloads;
(iii) Promote reduction in the cost of current space transportation systems while improving their reliability, operability, responsiveness, and safety;
(iv) Foster technology development and demonstration to support a future decision on the development of next generation reusable space transportation systems that greatly reduce the cost of access to space;
(v) Encourage, to the fullest extent feasible, the cost-effective use of commercially provided U.S. products and services that meet mission requirements; and
(vi) Foster the international competitiveness of the U.S. commercial space transportation industry, actively considering commercial needs and factoring them into decisions on improvements to launch facilities and vehicles.
(c) All activities related to space transportation undertaken by U.S. agencies and departments will be consistent with PDD/NSTC-4.
(ii) Continue research and development of advanced space-based Earth observation technologies to improve the quality and reduce the costs of Earth observations;
(iii) Support the development of U.S. commercial Earth observation capabilities by:
-- pursuing technology development programs, including partnerships
-- licensing the operation and, as appropriate, the export of private Earth observation systems and technologies, consistent with existing policy;
-- providing U.S. Government civil data to commercial firms on a non-discriminatory basis to foster the growth of the "value-added" data enhancement industry; and
-- making use, as appropriate, of relevant private sector capabilities, data, and information products in implementing this policy.
(iv) Produce and archive long-term environmental data sets.
(c) The U. S. Government will seek mutually beneficial cooperation with U.S. commercial and other national and international Earth observation system developers and operators, to:
(ii) develop U.S. Government civil Earth observing systems in coordination with other national and international systems to ensure the efficient collection and dissemination of the widest possible set of environmental measurements;
(iii) obtain Earth observation data from non-U. S. sources, and seek to make such data available to users consistent with OMB Circular A-130, national security requirements, and commercial sector guidance contained in the national space policy; and
(iv) support, as appropriate, the public, non-discriminatory direct read-out of data from Federal civil systems.
(ii) NASA, DoC/NOAA, DoD, the Intelligence Community, and DoE shall work together to identify, develop, demonstrate, and transition advanced technologies to U.S. Earth observation satellite systems.
(iii) In accordance with PDD/NSTC-3, NASA, DoC/NOAA, and Dol/USGS shall develop and operate an ongoing program to measure the Earth's land surface from space and ensure the continuity of the Landsat-type data set.
(iv) Consistent with national security, the U.S. Government space sectors shall continue to identify national security products and services that can contribute to global change research and civil environmental monitoring, and seek to make technology, products and services available to civil agencies for such uses. Both unclassified and, as appropriate, classified data from national security programs will be provided through established mechanisms.
(b) The United States will maintain its general policy of not supporting the development or acquisition of space launch vehicle systems in non-MTCR states.
(c) For MTCR countries we will not encourage new space launch vehicle programs which raise questions from a proliferation and economic standpoint. The United States will, however, consider exports of MTCR-controlled items to MTCR countries. Additional safeguard measures could also be considered for such exports, where appropriate. Any exports would remain subject to the non-transfer provisions of the INF and START treaties.
(d) The United States will work to stem the flow of advanced space technology to unauthorized destinations. Executive departments and agencies will be fully responsible for protecting against adverse technology transfer in the conduct of their programs.
(e) In entering into space-related technology development and transfer agreements with other countries, Executive Departments and Agencies will take into consideration whether such countries practice and encourage free and fair trade in commercial space activities.
The United States will consider and, as appropriate, formulate policy positions on arms control and related measures governing activities in space, and will conclude agreements on such measures only if they are equitable, effectively verifiable, and enhance the security of the United States and our allies. The Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA) is the principal agency within the Federal government for arms control matters. ACDA, in coordination with the DoD, DCI, State, DoE, and other appropriate Federal agencies, will identify arms control issues and opportunities related to space activities and examine concepts for measures that support national security objectives.
(6) Space Nuclear Power
The Department of Energy will maintain the necessary capability to support space missions which may require the use of space nuclear power systems. U.S. Government agency proposals for international cooperation involving space nuclear power systems are subject to normal interagency review procedures. Space nuclear reactors will not be used in Earth orbit without specific approval by the President or his designee. Such requests for approval will take into account public safety, economic considerations, international treaty obligations, and U.S. national security and foreign policy interests. The Office of Science and Technology Policy, in coordination with the NSC staff, will examine the existing approval process, including measures to address possible commercial use of space nuclear systems.
(7) Space Debris
(b) It is in the interest of the U.S. Government to ensure that space debris minimization practices are applied by other spacefaring nations and international organizations. The U.S. Government will take a leadership role in international fora to adopt policies and practices aimed at debris minimization and will cooperate internationally in the exchange of information on debris research and the identification of debris mitigation options.
The price charged for the use of U.S. Government facilities, equipment, and service, will be based on the following principles:
(b) Consistent with mission requirements, NASA and DoD will seek to use consistent pricing practices for facilities, equipment, and services.
(c) Tooling, equipment, and residual hardware on hand at the completion of U.S. Government programs will be priced and disposed of on a basis that is in the best overall interest of the United States while not precluding or deterring the continuing development of the U.S. commercial space sector.