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THE WHITE HOUSE
Office of Science and Technology Policy
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
June 12, 1996
ADDRESSING THE THREAT OF EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
The President today established a national policy to address the threat
of emerging infectious diseases through improved domestic and international
surveillance, prevention, and response measures.
Emerging infectious diseases such as Ebola, drug-resistant tuberculosis,
and HIV/AIDS present one of the most significant health and security challenges
facing the global community. Deaths from infectious disease have risen
sharply over the past decade in the United States and globally. In the
United States alone, the death rate from infectious diseases, excluding
HIV/AIDS, rose by 22 percent between 1980 and 1992. Contributing factors,
such as climate change, ecosystem disturbance, increased movement of people
and goods, and the deterioration of public health infrastructures, show
no sign of abatement. Addressing this challenge requires a global strategy
as most cities in the United States are within a 36 hour commercial flight
of any area of the world -- less time than the incubation period of many
infectious diseases. Furthermore, the United States is vulnerable to a
release of biological agents by rogue nations or terrorists, which could
result in the spread of infectious diseases.
The National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) has determined that
the national and International system of infectious disease surveillance,
prevention, and response is inadequate to protect the health of U.S. citizens.
The NSTC reports, "Infectious Disease -- A Global Health Threat" (September
1995), "Meeting the Challenge -- A Research Agenda for Health, Safety,
and Food" (February 1996), and "Proceedings of the Conference on Human
Health and Global Climate Change" (May 1996), make a number of recommendations
to improve our surveillance, prevention, and response capabilities which
are reflected in this policy.
Strengthen the domestic infectious disease surveillance and response system,
both at the Federal, State, and local levels and at ports of entry into
the United States, in cooperation with the private sector and with public
health and medical communities.
Establish a global infectious disease surveillance and response system,
based on regional hubs and linked by modern communications.
Strengthen research activities to improve diagnostics, treatment, and prevention,
and to improve the understanding of the biology of infectious disease agents.
Ensure the availability of the drugs, vaccines, and diagnostic tests needed
to combat infectious diseases and infectious disease emergencies through
public and private sector cooperation.
Expand missions and establish the authority of relevant United States Government
agencies to contribute to a worldwide infectious disease surveillance,
prevention, and response network.
Promote public awareness of emerging infectious diseases through cooperation
with nongovernmental organizations and the private sector.
U.S. Government Roles and Responsibilities
Enhance the surveillance and response components of our domestic and international
public health infrastructure.
Strengthen Federal and State laboratory and epidemiological response capabilities.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) will coordinate Federal
government efforts to strengthen Federal, State and local health departments
surveillance and response capabilities.
Strengthen research, training, and technology development for establishing
new and more effective interventions to combat emerging infectious diseases.
The Federal government, in cooperation with State and local governments,
international organizations, the private sector, and public health, medical
and veterinary communities, will establish a national and international
electronic network for surveillance and response regarding emerging infectious
Enhance biomedical and behavioral research efforts on emerging infectious
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) will lead Federal government efforts
to strengthen research on the development of new tools to detect and control
emerging infectious diseases and on the biology and pathology of infectious
agents, with particular emphasis on antimicrobial drug resistance. Research
will include the development of new mechanisms for the control and prevention
of zoonotic infectious agents, which are derived from domesticated and
wild animals, and the health effects of climate change.
Federal agencies will coordinate with the private sector, as appropriate,
including representatives of the pharmaceutical industry and the academic,
medical, and public health communities.
Expand formal training for health care providers.
Senior United States Government officials will work with health care provider,
health research organizations, and professional organizations to urge that
emerging infectious diseases be given greater emphasis in fellowship programs
and on certifying and re-certifying examinations.
NIH will work with appropriate medical college and public health school
associations, urging them to advise their member institutions to expand
training in emerging infectious diseases and antimicrobial drug resistance
in student curricula.
Review and update regulations, procedures, and resources for screening
and quarantine at ports of entry into the United States.
CDC will lead an interagency group to review and update current screening
and quarantine regulations, procedures, and resources aimed at minimizing
the threats disease outbreaks can pose to national health and security.
Issues considered should include early warning systems abroad, stricter
controls at ports of entry, and improved surveillance after persons, animals,
or material have entered the United States.
The National Security Council (NSC) will ensure that any recommendations
support counterterrorism measures.
Make information about ill international travelers with communicable diseases
more accessible to domestic Health authorities.
CDC will be the lead agency in the development of cooperative arrangements
with the transportation industry to provide needed information when follow-up
of passengers with communicable diseases arriving at United States ports
of entry is required.
Encourage other nations and international organizations to assign higher
priority to emerging infectious diseases.
The Department of State and Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP),
in consultation with other agencies, will develop and coordinate a sustained
effort to enlist support from other nations and international bodies. State
will raise the issue of emerging infectious diseases in bilateral, regional,
and multilateral discussions and will negotiate cooperative agreements
with other nations to promote the establishment of a global surveillance
and response network.
Support the World Health Organization (WHO) and other bodies in playing
a stronger role in the surveillance, prevention, and response to emerging
The United States will participate in the WHO-proposed revision of the
International Health Regulations to ensure improved screening and quarantine
The United States will urge the WHO to develop regional inventories of
resources for combating emerging infectious diseases and will explore joint
steps to strengthen surveillance and response capabilities of WHO and other
international organizations, as appropriate.
Expand United States agency missions and mandates in order to ensure that
responsible agencies are provided with the authority, emergency procurement
powers, and resources to respond to worldwide disease outbreaks that have
the potential to adversely affect the United States.
CDC's mandate to protect the Health of United States citizens will be more
clearly stated to allow conduct of surveillance and response activities,
including outbreak investigations and selected responses to epidemics overseas.
In disaster relief operations involving infectious diseases, CDC will operate
as part of the United States effort, as appropriate.
The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) will continue to
address the root causes of emerging diseases through its ongoing portfolio
of assistance to developing countries.
The mission of the Department of Defense (DoD) will be expanded to include
support of global surveillance, training, research, and response to emerging
infectious disease threats. DoD will strengthen its global disease reduction
efforts through: centralized coordination; improved preventive health programs
and epidemiological capabilities; and enhanced involvement with military
treatment facilities and United States and overseas laboratories.
DoD will ensure the availability of diagnostic capabilities at its three
domestic and six overseas laboratories. DoD will make available its overseas
laboratory facilities, as appropriate, to serve as focal points for the
training of foreign technicians and epidemiologists.
Coordination by a Standing Task Force
A standing Task Force of the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC)
is established to provide strategic planning and further coordination on
issues of emerging infectious diseases. The Task Force will establish action
groups as necessary to pursue specific topics. In particular, the Task
Force will act immediately to realize the objectives and implementing actions
The Task Force will be co-chaired by the Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention and the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy.
The Task Force will seek the views of the private sector and health service
providers in implementing this initiative.
The Task Force will report to the President through the NSTC and will provide
annual reports on the progress realized, including recommendations for
THE WHITE HOUSE
Office of the Vice President
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
WEDNESDAY, June 12, 1996
VICE PRESIDENT ANNOUNCES POLICY ON INFECTIOUS DISEASES
New Presidential Policy Calls for Coordinated Approach to Global Issue
WASHINGTON -- Calling emerging infectious diseases a growing global health
threat, Vice President Gore today (6/12) announced President Clinton's
new policy to establish a worldwide infectious disease surveillance and
response system, and expand certain federal agency mandates to better protect
"Emerging infectious diseases present one of the most significant health
and security challenges facing the global community," Vice President Gore
said during remarks to the annual meeting of the National Council for International
Health in Crystal City, Virginia. "Through President Clinton's leadership,
we now have the first national policy to deal with this serious international
"We are committed to ensuring that American citizens have the best protection
possible from emerging infectious diseases, and that means a coordinated,
comprehensive approach at both the national and international levels,"
Vice President Gore said.
In the United States, the death rate from infectious diseases, excluding
HIV/AIDS, rose by 22 percent between 1980 and 1992. Contributing factors
include climate change, increased movements of people and goods, and the
deterioration of public health infrastructures. Since most cities in the
United States are within a 36-hour commercial flight of any area of the
world -- less time than the incubation period of many infectious diseases
-- addressing the problem of emerging infectious diseases requires a global
Specifically, the presidential policy announced by Vice President Gore
today (6/12) calls for improved domestic and international surveillance,
prevention and response measures to emerging infectious diseases.
For example, the policy directs the United States government to work
with other nations and international organizations to establish a global
infectious disease surveillance and response system, based on regional
hubs and linked by modern communications technologies. It also expands
designated federal agency missions and it mandates in order to ensure that
they have tile authority, emergency procurement powers and resources to
respond to worldwide disease outbreaks that have the potential to impact
the United States.
In addition, the policy calls for strengthening research activities
to improve diagnosis, treatment and prevention of emerging infectious diseases;
ensuring the availability of the drugs, vaccines, and diagnostic tests
needed to combat emerging infectious diseases; and promoting public awareness
of emerging infectious diseases through cooperation with nongovernment
organizations and the private sector. The policy establishes a standing
Task Force of the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) to provide
strategic planning and further coordination on issues of emerging infectious
"The Clinton Administration has made the war against emerging infectious
diseases a priority," said Health and Human Services Secretary Donna E.
Shalala who joined the Vice President at today's announcement.- "These
diseases know no boundaries, and our international pursuit of them must
know no end."
Dr. John H. Gibbons, President Clinton's Science and Technology Advisor,
said, "This is yet another instance where we must pull together our full
range of capabilities -- research, the global information infrastructure,
international engagement -- to meet the challenge to the security and health
of our society."